16 Haziran 2016 Perşembe

Are there similarities between Turkic languages and Chinese&Japanese?

(Ignore my bad English lol)



Today, I will handle an unexpected subject from this blog.  (Yes,really :'>) By the way, I like linguistics' ethimologic part. Therefore, I will write an article~  I didn't want to handle a language which isn't close to me.  When it comes to ethimology, I need to use historical and cultural facts as well as languages.  So, I tried to choose familiar subjects to me ^^;;
      
          Hence, I am going to write about similarities between Turkic languages and Japanese + Chinese ( if it exists..) 
      I am starting with this map;

I'll handle Altaic part of the map.


Yes. . . There is no Chinese, right? Actually Japanese is not in its right place in this map too..But I mentioned. Then, I must explain you. 
It will be more than an explanation because I'll show the subject on maps.
 I couldn't find any good maps I want to use, hence I used my own.


(I translated the essential parts of the maps ^^;) Well, you are seeing first civilizations of the world in this picture. China is one of them. (If you wonder, no, Anatolia wasn't the place where Turks from.)


You are seeing Huns here. But who are they?
Huns (Or Hun Turks) are known as nomadic tribes which invaded The Roman Empire and "Tribal Migration". They occurred from several Asian ethnic groups. (Ogurs, Tungus, Mongols, including Scythian and Sarmatian and communities of nomadic Turkish tribes with Chinese tribes) 


Huns invaded from Chinese people and Turks formed Celestial Turk State. 
There was Han Dynasty . (China) after than Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty was formed. 



Last map! My history lesson is over here :'D Yes..And you are seeing The Great Wall of China in this picture. Chinese common people, criminals and soldiers built it to protect people and territory from invasion. Well, this map definitely evinces the origin of attacks . 

ANYWAY

(Time to talk about languages, finally. I want to write this here, Ural-Altaic languages' personal pronouns have no gender. Because of SOV sequence Korean and Japanese are thought as Altaic languages too but in real they have their own language groups. )

Turkic languages have passed into Persian, Hindustani, Russian, Chinese and to a lesser extent, Arabic. 
I mean, Turkish language is originating from central Asia, not Turkey. It is relevant to Chinese and Japanese. 

        Japanese and Turkish are both agglutinating languages. This means that suffixes are added to the verb stem unchanged to mark characteristics such as tense, subject and interrogation. Chinese is an isolating language in which each morpheme is a separate word. (English is called an Inflectional language.)
          Turkish—along with Mongolian and many others—is in the same language family according to a highly controversial linguistic theory (Ural-Altaic Languages). Japanese and Korean are different but they are very similar to altaic ones.What makes some linguists think in this way is mostly the grammars. So, there are many similarities in Japanese and Turkish grammars. 

          Through the years, Japan borrowed some linguistic aspects from Chinese: mostly some loan words and part of its writing system. The Japanese writing system uses the Chinese character (Kanji) for the meaning of words, such as verbs, then adds Japanese elements, called kana, to indicate the verb suffixes necessary for an agglutinating language. The pronunciation of the word may be historically Japanese, or use a modified version of the word from one of the Chinese dialects. 

           Chinese pronunciation and especially the notorious tones are really hard to grasp for most Chinese learners around the world; learning and mastering tones is the hardest part of learning Chinese. 

·         Compared to Chinese and English, Turkish pronunciation would be easier for Japanese. As a Turkish native speaker, I think Japanese is the easiest language in terms of pronounciation. I don't even need to try to pronounce Japanese, the sounds just come out in the right way.
   
      Overall, it appears that Japanese and Turkish are related, but that Japanese has borrowed things from Chinese. This is very similar to how English and German are related, but English has borrowed things from French/Latin.

     Now, I am giving you some examples..

First, Chinese.

 "/真的//跟我//?"

"You really want to with me walk/go QP?" (Chinese word order) 

"You really with me walk/go want to QP?" (Turkish word order)

"Do you really want to walk/go with me?" (English word order)

*QP: question particle


As you can see, the only difference between Chinese and Turkish is the place of the verb. Moreover, the question particle for yes and no sentences in both Chinese and Turkish has the same usage and similar sounds. "ma" in Chinese, "mı, mi, mu, mü" in Turkish. The vowel after "m" changes-depending on the vowel in the last syllable before the question particle-to maintain the sound harmony. In this example the QP (question particle) is "mu".




爸爸 ( baba / bàba ) chinese
It means "father"  and its meaning is same in Turkish too.


月(tsuki, getsu) japanese
(yuè)  chinese

It may be an interesting fact that  in Chinese, Japanese and in Turkish, "month" and "moon" are the same word. The reason for that is probably the use of "moon calendar". Its Turkish meaning is "ay".



                                                                


水 (mizu) japanese
(shuǐ) chinese

The letter means "water"
Its meaning is "su" is Turkish, some  sources say that it is relevant with Chinese . (I don't know if it is true though.)



茶 (cha) japanese
(chá) chinese
(çay) turkish (ç = ch)

No comments


Now, Japanese.

I said "... suffixes are added to the verb stem unchanged to mark characteristics such as tense, subject and interrogation." Also the rule is same;
 a subject–object–verb (SOV) 


"どこへ行きますか?"

 Doko e ikimasu ka? (Japanese)

Nere-y-e gidiyorsun? (Turkish)

Where are you going? (English)

The "y" is mainstreaming letter, so dative cases are same in both languages. But Japanese use "へ" (he) when they write. And also it can be "-a" in Turkish because the vowel after "m" changes-depending on the vowel in the last syllable before the question particle-to maintain the sound harmony. I wanted to remind it. 

"私は神戸へ行きました。"

Watashi wa Kobe e ikimashita.     (Japanese)

Ben Kobe'ye gittim/gitmiştim.     (Turkish)

I went to/ had gone to Kobe.     (English)

Also "で" (de) has one same usage in both languages.

"世界の中で"

Sekai no naka de  (Japanese)

Dünyanın içinde (Turkish)

In the world  (English)


"de" is locative case in this usage. But sometimes "ni" is used in Japanese. You can distinguish it if you learn the rule ^^;

Jp: Kuruma-de
Tr: Araba-da
En: by car

 
Also it has this meaning. ( When reporting the tool etc. is used. ) But its this usage is valid only for vehicles in Turkish. 


And one more,

何ですか?

Nan desu ka? (Japanese)

Nedir ki?  (Turkish)

What is it?  (English) 


"desu" has no meaning in English but it has the same meaning with the Turkish copula "-dir" .
"ka" is sometimes used as "ki" in Turkish by this.


I also want to add these,

         Turkish "ii" (actually iyi) was edgü in Old Turkic. Therefore Turkish "iyi" can't be compared            to Japanesse "ii".

          Japanese yama(
山) "mountain" is not an equivalent to Turkic tag but in Turkish there is a word yamaç that means "piedmount".

          If Japanese yakimasu (
焼きます)  has "to bake" meaning it still preserves the comparison with Turkic yakmak. ( I suppose...Well, I don't know. ww)

       And I don't know if Japanese kuro (黒) and Turkish "kara" (they both mean "black" ) are relevant. :/ 


      I already write the article about "similarities" , we can't say which word is origin of others' :'>

           
 Yes, that is all from today. It is late here. ^^;
Thank you!
Teşekkür ederim!
ありがとうございます。
谢谢!


                        

1 yorum:

  1. wow uzun zamandır yazı yazmıyor muşsun yazın için teşekkürler

    YanıtlaSil